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  1. #1
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Introduction

    Okay, so it seems as if every few days a new thread is started, usually featuring a question of theory from someone who hasn't bothered to use the Search function, or simply can't find an appropirate thread due to the search function not allowing you to use three letter queries.

    While active on this forum, I invariably wind up posting in that thread answering the person's question or correcting a misconception only to have the question arise again a few days later by someone new.

    Rather than keep up this incessant posting, I've decided to just simply make one thread, one post, containing all of my knowledge relating to Stargate technology, with both in-universe and real life explanations. I will update this first post with new information heavily over the next few days and then periodically following that. If you have any requests for topics to be added to this post please feel free to respond in this thread and I'll do my best to update this post with the requested information.

    I realise that this next request of mine is most likely a pipe dream, but here goes anyway; I would ask that argument either be left out entirely or kept to a minimum in this thread. Please note that I've entitled this thread "Dev Corvin's Analysis.... etc" for this exact reason. This topic contains my opinions as to the workings of Stargate physics and while I will try to be accurate as often as possible, there will be those unavoidable times where I make a mistake or I simply disagree with conventional physics and/or popular belief regarding the Stargate series. This, I'm afraid, comes with the territory of being in the field of theoretical physics and so again, bear in mind that these explanations will be based on certain fringe theories such as string theory, quantum mechanics, as well as some of my own. I will always, however, aim for the most logical and simple explanation - even if this requires switching fields - as invariably that tends to be the correct path in life.


    Planned topics for this thread include...
    • Power systems (ZPMs, especially)
    • Tactical systems (shields, weaponry)
    • Cloaking
    • Propulsion
    • Temporal Mechanics
    • Alternate Universes
    ...amongst others.

    As I said previously, if you have any other suggestions, please feel free to reply, and if you disagree with any of the information here, please contact me via PM rather than replying to this thread. I make this request respectfully at the hope of keeping things clean and simple for people just looking for quick answers to common questions; it's my hope that this sort of post will make life easier for the majority of the forum users, so if you have any queries or complaints regarding its content, please let me know privately and I may be willing to make amendments or changes.

    - Dev Corvin, 06/07/2008

    The Basics

    Some of you may want to skip this if you just want quick answers; but if you're interested, this section should help provide a deeper understanding of some of the explanations given here.

    The Universe

    As we know it, the universe is a multi-dimensional structure comprising of energy, matter and information. However, the nature of the universe has often been misrepresented in physics and science fiction alike. Luckily, some of the most recent theories provide a much more satisfying and logical description of the universe, many of which fit the technology and concepts in Stargate perfectly, without being explicitly explained on screen.

    What we think of as the universe around is a 5 dimensional construct comprised of three spatial dimensions and two virtual dimensions. The first three contain all the matter and energy in the universe, and the next two contain the information which describes the structure and layout of the universe; if the first dimension is x, the second y, and the third z, then time is defined by the fourth, and probability by the fifth.

    Both physics and science fiction tend to confuse the issue by referring to the first four dimensions as a hypothetical 4-dimensional "spacetime", which implies a spatial relationship and the potential presence of matter in the fourth dimension; in reality, this is a misnomer as both objects and energy exist wholly within the first three dimensions, only having their actions defined by the fourth, and structure defined by the fifth.

    In the context of Stargate, alternate universes would be defined by changes in position in the fifth dimension, as movement along that axis would affect every single choice and the outcome of all potential events with "quantum uncertainty" at a base level, changing the nature of the universe entirely. (NOTE: This is in contrast to the concept of parallel universes, which are instead defined as entirely separate three dimensional states contained within the second plane (dimensions 6, 7, and 8))

    All entities in our universe have a natural tendency towards being fixed in position along the fifth dimensional axis and a continual linear progression at a constant rate along the fourth dimensional axis. This causes the appearance - to conscious entities - of a linear progression through time from start to finish. In reality, the matter and energy contained in 3-dimensional space is actually being reconfigured around them in accordance with the rules defined by the fifth dimension at a rate determined by the fourth. A concept which will be introduced later when we discuss temporal mechanics are "temporal streams", which essentially say that an entity created at a certain point along the fourth dimension retains a connection to its native time period; this affects the rate and time at which shifts in the fifth dimension (AU/AT scenarios) propagate along the fourth dimension from the original point of variance, as shown perfectly in Stargate Continuum.

    Subspace / Hyperspace

    While the name "subspace" may implicate a 'lower' branch of space, in reality it simply refers to a subset of the traditional five-dimensional construct typically known as our universe.

    In "subspace", there exists a complete disconnect of the first three spatial dimensions from the second two virtual dimensions. The resulting pocket of three dimensional space no longer retains any of the structure or definition of the universe as we usually see it, nor the implied "laws of physics" which emerge as a result of the interaction between the virtual and spatial dimensions. The speed of light is no longer a constant, time dialation effects no longer occurr, and speed through the medium of subspace is limited only by the amount of energy which can be applied. "Hyperspace" is merely a term for subspace entered through the use of a hyperdrive, which uses large amounts of energy to break the strings between the spatial and virtual dimensions, as well as creating a field which maintains the fourth and fifth dimensions around the entity entering subspace. This will be explained in more detail in the Hyperdrive section.
    Last edited by Dev Corvin; July 10th, 2008 at 06:02 AM.

  2. #2
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Power Systems

    Generators

    So far in the Stargate franchise we've seen several different types of power generators, the majority of which have used Naquadah as a base component in the reactor stage.

    Cold Fusion Generator

    The DHDs in the Milky Way use a cold fusion generator located at the base of the unit in order to power both the DHDs systems and provide activation power to the Stargate itself. The principle on which these reactors work remains unexplained on-screen, although it stands to reason they use Naquadah to facilitate the reaction, thus allowing for fusion to occur at room temperature. Whether or not this is how standard Naqadah generators work remains unknown, although the longevity of these power sources when compared to Naquadah generators implies that it uses a different mechanism entirely.

    These generators are capable of providing enough energy for possibly millions of gate activations in total (the Antarctic DHD was at least 50 million years old, and some Goa'uld planets have enough wormhole travel to and from them to account for hundreds of activations per week. However, the total power output of these generators is fairly low, as a DHD - while capable of producing immense amounts of power in total during its lifespan - is unable to provide the burst of power (or wattage in traditional electrical terms) required to dial an 8-chevron gate address for intergalactic travel.

    Earth Naqadah Generator

    These generators, roughly the size of a rolled-up sleeping bag, are capable of power a multitude of systems both of Ancient and Earth origin, including the Stargate itself.

    Frequently carried by SG teams when the presence of an offworld DHD cannot be confirmed, these devices allow the manual dialling of a Stargate in emergency situations and have also been used in a variety of innovative ways throught the series. Several of these generators were originally used to power the city of Atlantis before the first ZPM was recovered from Egypt, and although they were incapable of powering the city's tactical systems, provided enough power to keep the lights on and enable interplanetary dialling within the Pegasus galaxy.

    As with the DHD's cold fusion generators, a single Naquadah generator does not provide enough wattage to establish an intergalactic wormhole. For that matter, even multiple Naquadah generators are incapable of providing an adequate level of power throughput, thus indicating that dialling an 8-symbol address requires a burst of power many times greater than that of a 7-symbol address, possibly exponentially so.

    Neutrino Ion Generator

    While we know very little about the actual workings of the primary Asgard power source, we do know that its power output is enough to max out an Asgard hyperdrive and establish an intergalactic wormhole. It appears that Neutronium is a key component in this technology.

    Batteries

    ZPM

    Ahhh, the ZPM. Quote possibly the most wonderful piece of technology in the Stargate franchise; cornerstone of Ancient technology and the primary plot developer for Season 1 of Atlantis.

    The ZPM, unlike the majority of power sources in the Stargate universe, doesn't actually generate power at all; instead, it provides access to an immense charge stored in the form of both matter and energy contained within a self-contained artifically created pocket universe comprising soley of subspace (ie, a purely spatial construct).

    After the creation of said region of subspace, evidence indicates that the ZPM is essentially "charged up" by direct energy-matter conversion, in much the same way that the Asgard matter converter (developed in Unending) works, by the sustained use of a power source of similar proportion. We know that the Lanteans used geothermal drilling platforms to tap massive amounts of energy from a planets' core - it could very well be that the ZPM "factories" essentially used massive arrays of geothermal generators to create the artificial universes contained within ZPMs - essentially the Lantean equivelant of charging up a battery.

    The ZPM itself makes use of the interaction between matter and energy on a base level to generate power, a principle known as 'zero-point' or 'vacuum' energy. While traditional applications of this technology use a passive process, a ZPM seems to be able to actively control the rate of reaction, with the downside being the creation of exotic particles within the ZPM's artificial universe. The cumulative build-up of these particles over time eventually leads to the destabilization of said universe.

    A common analogy I've used previously when explaining how ZPMs work is as follows:

    Imagine a 2 litre Pepsi bottle filled with water, and a tube over the neck of the bottle. If you connect that tube to a pump, and pump the water out of the bottle without allowing any air to return back into it, the bottle shrinks around the water thus maintaining the pressure/volume constant. Eventually, you end up with a completely empty bottle - empty of water and of air, all crumpled up; assuming it doesn't break along the way.

    This is what the term "maximum entropy" refers to when talking about ZPM capacity. Essentially, you're pumping energy out of the mini-universe, causing it to shrink and fracture around it until the universe is void of viable energy. The main problem is that the active (rather than passive) drain of this energy causes the creation of exotic particles which eventually build up and lead to the destruction/nullification of that artificial universe.

    As well as the immense capacity of a ZPM, one of its unique features is the ability to deliver up to 1% of its total capacity per second. This has been established in several episodes of Atlantis, and is in fact higher than any other power source in the Stargate universe.

    Puddle Jumper

    According to on-screen evidence in "Grace Under Pressure", it seems as though Puddle Jumpers have fairly high-capacity batteries/capacitors which store electrical charge provided by the docking platforms in Atlantis and/or additional power supplies such as Naquadah Generators.

    The stored charge appears to be large enough to power the Jumper in normal operation for extended periods of time, including use of the cloak and weaponry, as well as use of a shield for several hours (also in "Grace Under Pressure"), and even operation of a small hyperdrive ("Lifeline").
    Last edited by Dev Corvin; July 8th, 2008 at 02:05 PM.

  3. #3
    Major Seastallion's Avatar
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    Wink Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Nice idea!

    If you don't mind, I thought I might throw a little definition your way concerning the relationship between hyperspace and subspace. Specifically, Hyperspace is the 'pocket' of space existing within the Corridor (or tunnel) created by a ships hyperdrive engine, while traveling through Subspace. In effect, hyperspace is an artificial eddy or current within subspace. Very similiar in concept in how a motor boat's propellor creates an artificial current in water to drive it.

    I hope I've been helpful, and not considered to be stepping on any toes. If so, I'll refrain from now on.
    The success or failure of your deeds, does not add up to the sum of your life. Your spirit cannot be weighed! Judge yourself by the intentions of your actions, and by the strength with which you faced the challenges that have stood in your way. The Universe is so vast, and we are so small, there is only truly one thing we can control; whether we are good or evil... -Oma Desala
    Spoiler:

    To all the 'Sci & Tech' forum users: If you are searching for a thread about your topic of interest, please come visit our Concordance Thread. If you have any questions, we will attempt to help you.
    http://forum.gateworld.net/showthread.php?t=26498

    Feel free to pass the green..!

    My Website... http://return-of-the-constitution.webs.com
    My Blog @ http://myhatsize.blogspot.com
    Amazing Literary Works of Fel... http://sennadar.com/wp/

    Also, visit my webpage at... http://www.stargatesg1.com/Seastallion Sadly, this page is gone with the website that supported it, but I'll keep the link up in memorial.

  4. #4
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Placeholder.
    Last edited by Dev Corvin; July 8th, 2008 at 02:14 PM.

  5. #5
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Placeholder 2.
    Last edited by Dev Corvin; July 8th, 2008 at 02:14 PM.

  6. #6
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Placeholder 3.
    Last edited by Dev Corvin; July 8th, 2008 at 02:13 PM.

  7. #7
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Placeholder 4.

  8. #8
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Placeholder 5.

  9. #9
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Placeholder 6 (last one ).

  10. #10
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Right, so I've updated this thread with a section on power sources. I've attempted to cover all the elements although I probably should post something about geothermal energy as well; I'll take care of that as soon as I get a chance.

    I've had to throw a few placeholders in this thread as otherwise by the time I finish this they'll be spread throughout the thread and thus eliminate the point of this thread entirely

    Originally I'd planned to keep it all in a single post but unfortunately there's a limit to the maximum size of each post (12,000 characters I think). It's a bit of a pain in the ass that they're not consecutive, so if you don't have any objection, if you've posted already in this thread it would be AWESOME if you could edit your posts and choose "delete this message", or at the very least disable signatures for the post (should clean things up a lot).

    Anyway, I hope you enjoy the update, and thanks a lot for your support guys

  11. #11
    Lieutenant Colonel Ltcolshepjumper's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Quote Originally Posted by Dev Corvin View Post
    Introduction

    Okay, so it seems as if every few days a new thread is started, usually featuring a question of theory from someone who hasn't bothered to use the Search function, or simply can't find an appropirate thread due to the search function not allowing you to use three letter queries.

    While active on this forum, I invariably wind up posting in that thread answering the person's question or correcting a misconception only to have the question arise again a few days later by someone new.

    Rather than keep up this incessant posting, I've decided to just simply make one thread, one post, containing all of my knowledge relating to Stargate technology, with both in-universe and real life explanations. I will update this first post with new information heavily over the next few days and then periodically following that. If you have any requests for topics to be added to this post please feel free to respond in this thread and I'll do my best to update this post with the requested information.

    I realise that this next request of mine is most likely a pipe dream, but here goes anyway; I would ask that argument either be left out entirely or kept to a minimum in this thread. Please note that I've entitled this thread "Dev Corvin's Analysis.... etc" for this exact reason. This topic contains my opinions as to the workings of Stargate physics and while I will try to be accurate as often as possible, there will be those unavoidable times where I make a mistake or I simply disagree with conventional physics and/or popular belief regarding the Stargate series. This, I'm afraid, comes with the territory of being in the field of theoretical physics and so again, bear in mind that these explanations will be based on certain fringe theories such as string theory, quantum mechanics, as well as some of my own. I will always, however, aim for the most logical and simple explanation - even if this requires switching fields - as invariably that tends to be the correct path in life.


    Planned topics for this thread include...
    • Power systems (ZPMs, especially)
    • Tactical systems (shields, weaponry)
    • Cloaking
    • Propulsion
    • Temporal Mechanics
    • Alternate Universes
    ...amongst others.

    As I said previously, if you have any other suggestions, please feel free to reply, and if you disagree with any of the information here, please contact me via PM rather than replying to this thread. I make this request respectfully at the hope of keeping things clean and simple for people just looking for quick answers to common questions; it's my hope that this sort of post will make life easier for the majority of the forum users, so if you have any queries or complaints regarding its content, please let me know privately and I may be willing to make amendments or changes.

    - Dev Corvin, 06/07/2008

    The Basics

    Some of you may want to skip this if you just want quick answers; but if you're interested, this section should help provide a deeper understanding of some of the explanations given here.

    The Universe

    As we know it, the universe is a multi-dimensional structure comprising of energy, matter and information. However, the nature of the universe has often been misrepresented in physics and science fiction alike. However, some of the most recent theories provide a much more satisfying and logical description of the universe, many of which fit the technology and concepts in Stargate perfectly, without being explicitly explained on screen.

    What we think of as the universe around is a 5 dimensional construct comprised of three spatial dimensions and two virtual dimensions. The first three contain all the matter and energy in the universe, and the next two contain the information which describes the structure and layout of the universe; if the first dimension is x, the second y, and the third z, then time is defined by the fourth, and probability by the fifth.

    Both physics and science fiction tend to confuse the issue by referring to the first four dimensions as a hypothetical 4-dimensional "spacetime", which implies a spatial relationship and the potential presence of matter in the fourth dimension; in reality, this is a misnomer as both objects and energy exist wholly within the first three dimensions, only having their actions defined by the fourth, and structure defined by the fifth.

    In the context of Stargate, alternate universes would be defined by changes in position in the fifth dimension, as movement along that axis would affect every single choice and the outcome of all potential events with "quantum uncertainty" at a base level, changing the nature of the universe entirely. (NOTE: This is in contrast to the concept of parallel universes, which are instead defined as entirely separate three dimensional states contained within the second plane (dimensions 6, 7, and 8))

    All entities in our universe have a natural tendency towards being fixed in position along the fifth dimensional axis and a continual linear progression at a constant rate along the fourth dimensional axis. This causes the appearance - to conscious entities - of a linear progression through time from start to finish. In reality, the matter and energy contained in 3-dimensional space is actually being reconfigured around them in accordance with the rules defined by the fifth dimension at a rate determined by the fourth. A concept which will be introduced later when we discuss temporal mechanics are "temporal streams", which essentially say that an entity created at a certain point along the fourth dimension retains a connection to its native time period; this affects the rate and time at which shifts in the fifth dimension (AU/AT scenarios) propagate along the fourth dimension from the original point of variance, as shown perfectly in Stargate Continuum.

    Subspace / Hyperspace

    While the name "subspace" may implicate a 'lower' branch of space, in reality it simply refers to a subset of the traditional five-dimensional construct typically known as our universe.

    In "subspace", there exists a complete disconnect of the first three spatial dimensions from the second two virtual dimensions. The resulting pocket of three dimensional space no longer retains any of the structure or definition of the universe as we usually see it, nor the implied "laws of physics" which emerge as a result of the interaction between the virtual and spatial dimensions. The speed of light is no longer a constant, time dialation effects no longer occurr, and speed through the medium of subspace is limited only by the amount of energy which can be applied. "Hyperspace" is merely a term for subspace entered through the use of a hyperdrive, which uses large amounts of energy to break the strings between the spatial and virtual dimensions, as well as creating a field which maintains the fourth and fifth dimensions around the entity entering subspace. This will be explained in more detail in the Hyperdrive section.
    So, this is more like a better Omnipedia. I'm fine with that. What other things will you be covering?
    Never, never, never believe any war will be smooth or easy...
    http://forum.gateworld.net/picture.p...ictureid=12118
    ... or that any man can measure the tides and hurricanes he will
    encounter on the strange journey.


    Spoiler:

    2 Cor. 10:3-5
    3 For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh:
    4 (For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds; )
    5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ;

  12. #12
    First Lieutenant
    Member Since
    Mar 2008
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Quote Originally Posted by Dev Corvin View Post
    Power Systems

    ZPM

    Ahhh, the ZPM. Quote possibly the most wonderful piece of technology in the Stargate franchise; cornerstone of Ancient technology and the primary plot developer for Season 1 of Atlantis.

    The ZPM, unlike the majority of power sources in the Stargate universe, doesn't actually generate power at all; instead, it provides access to an immense charge stored in the form of both matter and energy contained within a self-contained artifically created pocket universe comprising soley of subspace (ie, a purely spatial construct).

    After the creation of said region of subspace, evidence indicates that the ZPM is essentially "charged up" by direct energy-matter conversion, in much the same way that the Asgard matter converter (developed in Unending) works, by the sustained use of a power source of similar proportion. We know that the Lanteans used geothermal drilling platforms to tap massive amounts of energy from a planets' core - it could very well be that the ZPM "factories" essentially used massive arrays of geothermal generators to create the artificial universes contained within ZPMs - essentially the Lantean equivelant of charging up a battery.

    The ZPM itself makes use of the interaction between matter and energy on a base level to generate power, a principle known as 'zero-point' or 'vacuum' energy. While traditional applications of this technology use a passive process, a ZPM seems to be able to actively control the rate of reaction, with the downside being the creation of exotic particles within the ZPM's artificial universe. The cumulative build-up of these particles over time eventually leads to the destabilization of said universe.

    A common analogy I've used previously when explaining how ZPMs work is as follows:

    Imagine a 2 litre Pepsi bottle filled with water, and a tube over the neck of the bottle. If you connect that tube to a pump, and pump the water out of the bottle without allowing any air to return back into it, the bottle shrinks around the water thus maintaining the pressure/volume constant. Eventually, you end up with a completely empty bottle - empty of water and of air, all crumpled up; assuming it doesn't break along the way.

    This is what the term "maximum entropy" refers to when talking about ZPM capacity. Essentially, you're pumping energy out of the mini-universe, causing it to shrink and fracture around it until the universe is void of viable energy. The main problem is that the active (rather than passive) drain of this energy causes the creation of exotic particles which eventually build up and lead to the destruction/nullification of that artificial universe.

    As well as the immense capacity of a ZPM, one of its unique features is the ability to deliver up to 1% of its total capacity per second. This has been established in several episodes of Atlantis, and is in fact higher than any other power source in the Stargate universe.
    ZPM's aren't charged up they just draw power from the created region. As for the term maximum entropy, when Zero Point Energy is drawn exotic particles are created, they build up untill it affects the entire region. These exotic particles created an enviroment where the laws of physics caese to apply and this results in chaos. Maximum entropy reverse to the situation where the entire region is in a state of chaos and no power can be drawn.

    By the way your banner says at gateworld.com, I believe it is at gateworld.net

  13. #13
    Second Lieutenant Dev Corvin's Avatar
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    Mar 2007
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    Quote Originally Posted by EternalAlteran View Post
    ZPM's aren't charged up they just draw power from the created region. As for the term maximum entropy, when Zero Point Energy is drawn exotic particles are created, they build up untill it affects the entire region. These exotic particles created an enviroment where the laws of physics caese to apply and this results in chaos. Maximum entropy reverse to the situation where the entire region is in a state of chaos and no power can be drawn.

    By the way your banner says at gateworld.com, I believe it is at gateworld.net
    "Charged up" is a metaphor. The process of creating the artificial universe is the "charging" the metaphor refers to. The point is, it's stored charge, not energy generated from reaction of matter, like Naquadah Generators.

    Thanks for pointing out the sig error though, was tired when I made it lol.

  14. #14
    Lieutenant General thekillman's Avatar
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    Default Re: Dev Corvin's Analysis, Definitions and Explanations of In-Show Technology

    someone may have revealed how NIGs work:

    first, basic knowledge

    The term neutronium was coined in 1926 by Professor Andreas von Antropoff for a conjectured form of matter made up of neutrons with no protons, which he placed as the chemical element of atomic number zero at the head of his new version of the periodic table. It was subsequently placed as a noble gas in the middle of several spiral representations of the periodic system for classifying the chemical elements, such as the Chemical Galaxy (2005). It is thought to be the first element that emerged after the big bang.

    Although the term is not used in the scientific literature either for a condensed form of matter, or as an element, there have been reports that, besides the free neutron, there may exist two bound forms of neutrons without protons. However, these reports have not been further substantiated. Further information can be found in the following articles:

    Mononeutron: Isolated neutrons undergo beta decay with a half-life of approximately 15 minutes, becoming protons (the nucleus of hydrogen) and electrons.
    Dineutron: The dineutron, containing two neutrons, is not a bound particle, but has been proposed as an extremely short-lived state produced by nuclear reactions involving tritium.
    Tetraneutron: A tetraneutron is a hypothetical particle consisting of four bound neutrons. Reports of its existence have not been replicated. If confirmed, it would require revision of current nuclear models.
    A trineutron state consisting of three bound neutrons has not been detected, and is not expected to be stable even for a short time. Calculations indicate that the hypothetical pentaneutron state, consisting of a cluster of five neutrons, would not be bound.

    And so on, through the numbers, up to icosaneutron, with 20 neutrons.[3]

    If one accepts neutronium to be an element, the above mentioned neutron clusters would be the isotopes of that element.
    source

    now, with dineutron and tetraneutron ETC, one can theorize neutronium consists out of "element Zero", and its isotopes. seeing as there is a vast difference in having one or two or three or 20 neutrons, neutronium can use the combined aspects of these isotopes to create a stable structure. whether neutronium uses one one form of "element zero" , or many isotopes, is unknown. infact, whether it has molecules, or uses a crystalline structure isnt even known, though crystalline would be most logical.

    However, MOO2 also depicts a more realistic technology, the "neutronium bomb," an extremely powerful planetary bombardment weapon which causes damage due to "gravitic effects and the explosive decompression of the neutronium itself," a description more consistent with the expected properties of neutron-degenerate matter.
    In the webcomic Schlock Mercenary (2000) neutronium is used in "annie plants," a type of total conversion power generator used for running everything from gigantic warships to personal sidearms. Gravitic technology is used to generate the neutronium from ordinary matter. (This form of neutronium is more closely based on true neutron-degenerate matter: it is similarly fluid and similarly unstable, and is a favored fuel for "annie plants" because of its extreme density.)
    also from wikipedia, source mentioned above.

    this means our neutronium is actually impossible. wikipedia mentions its gravity and density would cause it to sink immediatly to the core of whatever body its on.
    also, its stated to be possible one of the first elements created after the big bang.
    this would explain why neutronium can be found just like that on some planets, as opposed to neutron stars.

    other mentions say small blobs of it would remain perfectly spherical, and stable under their own gravity.


    now as to how NIGs work.

    Outside the nucleus, free neutrons are unstable and have a mean lifetime of 885.7±0.8 s (about 15 minutes), decaying by emission of a negative electron and antineutrino to become a proton
    it is theorized neutrinos from suns could be used to annihilate the antineutrino of neutrons. this would result in antimatter reaction energy, and Beta decay energy.
    if neutronium is really that dense, it means there are tons and tons of neutrons. also, its density helps it interact with neutrino's. this way, massive amounts of energy could be extracted. not to mention the fact a small chunk of neutronium would extract tons of energy, and, seeing the size of NIGs, they can generate staggering amounts of energy.

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